Igpamilinbilin hai ku Higaonon ha tag-angatan day alan.
This is dedicated to The Higaonon, the one whom we are waiting for.

 

Aman ta hibaya pa igbayang hu ABS-CBN su kaggamit dan hu lalang ha bagani, na maayad isab-isaben ta su kagsulisuli taini. Imba hari agsuliman su ABS-CBN hu kagdagahay hu Higaonon? Imba hari agpalimani hu ABS-CBN su kaglapid hu Higaonon? Imba harig kagayha su ABS-CBN hu kagpasipala hu piglamahan hu Higaonon?

Since the ABS-CBN continues its unwarranted use of the word “bagani”, it would be good to scrutinize it again. Why is it that ABS-CBN refuses to listen to the statement of the Higaonons? Why is it that ABS-CBN does not hearken to the protestations of the Higaonons? Why is it that ABS-CBN has no shame in desecrating the culture and dignity of the Higaonons?

Su sambat taena na iyan hai – hari ag-abinon hu ABS-CBN ha nakasala daw hibaya pakasala duun hu kagpaaha dan hu kalingawan ha pigtugam-ahan dan hu Bagani. Ku imba kayanaen su kandan ha kagpangena, na mabukalkalan iman. Ta aman siran maduson su pusung ta amin mga kagi pa intelektuwal ha taglapid hu dagahayen hu Higaonon. Ta aman hari siran agkagayha hu kagpanlakad dan hu kultura hu Higaonon ta amin mga etaw ha aglapid hu kaglalaw hu Higaonon hu kaggamit hu duma hu lalang ha bagani. Ta aman siran hari tagpaliliman baniya lupyagen hu Higaonon, aman hari siran agsuliman hu manlag dagahayen hu Higaonon, ta piggamit dan hu pamamahandi su lalang indulang ha bagani.

The simple answer to these questions – ABS-CBN does not recognize that it has erred and that it continues to commit violations in airing its show which it has pretentiously named Bagani. Let us try to expose why this is so. Well, the concerned ABS-CBN people are hardhearted maybe because they have found allies in some so-called intellectuals who reject the declarations of the Higaonons. They do not feel shame in disrespecting the culture of the Higaonons maybe because there are those who oppose the Higaonons’ unequivocal demand that they stop desecrating the sacred word bagani. They do not listen to the clear declarations of the Higaonons, they do not heed the easily understandable statements of the Higaonons, maybe because they are using the sacred word bagani in a profitable money-making scheme.

Daw ta kaantokai su helay ta iman, maayad ha likoan ta su kagpamusunga hu pila ha etaw hu kaglapid hu Higaonon ta isan inu ha kaggamit hu lalang ha bagani hu mga etaw ha kena tagbabatasan hu kagbagani. Taini ha Marso, amin kalingawan hu ABS-CBN ha pig-ilahan dan hu tugam-a ha Bagani. Su matun-an ko haini, manlag indagahay ko su kanak ha kaglapid, su kanak ha kagtambag taena. Iyan ko himalaw ha ipauma ta ABS-CBN ha su iling ko ha Higaonon na agkapauk hu kalamud dan ha kaggamit hu lalang ha bagani. Inikagi kod ha undaan dan su kaggamit taena ta agkalakaran taena su kanay ha piglamahan. Daw in-isab ko ha duun hu Article 31 hu United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People  daw duun hu Section 32 daw 34 hu RA 8371, na inikagi ha su alan ha imbesag hu kultura hu mga IP kagi pa, na agpanagulambongan dan. Na aman ta mayanaen, pig-ilahan su mga iling kanay hu katunged ha paggaladan su kanay ha piglamahan hu kultura. Su piglupyag ko ha batbat na mabasa duun ta inkulis ko ha Tinagalog Hinggil sa palabas na Bagani ng ABS-CBN.

In order for us to have a solid grasp of our current situation, it would be good to revisit the cat-like vehemence of some persons in opposing the stand of the Higaonons regarding the unwarranted use of the sacred word bagani. It should be noted that these persons are those who do not practice the bagani traditions. This March 2018, ABS-CBN launched a teleserye which was entitled Bagani. When I learned about this, I immediately registered my strong protests and opposition to such unwarranted use. It was my purpose then to notify ABS-CBN that Higaonons like me are angered on the unwarranted use of our sacred word bagani. I expressly stated that it should immediately cease and desist in using it as a title of their show because it is a desecration to our culture. I even pointed out that Article 31 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People and Sections 32 and 34 of RA 8371, declare that all cultural manifestations of indigenous peoples are protected under the law. It has given us the right to guard our culture from any forms of exploitation especially from outsiders. My statement which is written in Tagalog could still be read here Hinggil sa palabas na Bagani ng ABS-CBN (https://www.facebook.com/anijun.mudanudan/posts/10213615397437237?notif_id=1520849893558937&notif_t=feedback_reaction_generic&ref=notif ). 

Ba nakignat anuba su duma ta amin man diay miggamit un hu bagani daw amin daan duma ha hari agkaaha ha sala su maal un ha kaggamit hu ABS-CBN daw ku sin-o pa hu lalang ha bagani. Nangaligis siran hu impapulalaguy ko ha goyuran ha tagguyoron hu maamahan ha kalabaw.

However, it seems that there are some who were aghast at my statement. It turns out that there is someone who had already used bagani and that there are those who strongly believe that it is not wrong for ABS-CBN or any person to use the word bagani in any way that would please them. They were obviously hit by the statement that I let loose in a goyuran pulled by a raging bull carabao.

Sungu na, nangakahiwal un labi su nangaligis. Sabuwa taena si Jerry B. Gracio, Komisyoner hu KWF daw tagpanguliskulis duun hu mga kalingawan hu TV. Pigsulat din su Muni sa Bagani ha mabasa yu dini.

So one by one, those who were hit had revealed themselves. One of them was Jerry B. Gracio, Commissioner of the KWF and writes for TV shows. He wrote Muni sa Bagani which you may access here (https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=10216344727709648&id=1198322242).

Nangalukag daan si Edgar Calabia Samar ta piggamit din diay su lalang ha bagani duun hu libro din ha Janus Silang. Mabasa dini su mga inkulis din.

Edgar Calabia Samar bristled also because he was the one who used bagani in his book Janus Silang. His thoughts on this matter are in his FB statuses which could be read here (https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=10156211619386972&id=554681971 , https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=10156211447126972&id=554681971 https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=10156210984341972&id=554681971).

Iglagkes un daan su ki Louie Jon Sanchez ha sambat din hu inikagi hi CHED Commissioner Ronald Adamat. Mabasa su ki Sanchez dini. Duun taini daan mabasa su ki Adamat

I’m including here the statements of Louie Jon Sanchez even though it was purposely directed to the statements of CHED Commissioner Ronald Adamat. His article could be accessed here (https://m.facebook.com/notes/louie-jon-a-s%C3%A1nchez/ang-bagani-ang-liham-ni-kom-adamat-ang-pagkiling-sa-realismo-at-ang-patuloy-na-m/10155186625141316/ ). While you may access Adamat’s statement here (https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=2394623190563922&set=pcb.2394623277230580&type=3&theater ).

Amin pa duma ha mga migpalayang hu dagahayen, su mga sakop hi Cong. Nancy Catamco ha say Melchor Umpan Bayawan daw Melissa Claire Barrera. Mabasa yu dini su ki Bayawan. Duun taini mabasa yu su ki Barrera.

There are also others who voiced their statements but I only knew of those from Cong. Nancy Catamco’s staff namely Melchor Umpan Bayawan and Melissa Claire Barrera. Bayawan’s statement is here (https://www.facebook.com/melchor.bayawan/posts/1833006296743747 ). And here you may read Barrera’s (https://www.facebook.com/blessbarrera/posts/315847855605485 ).  

Maayad ha basahen yu haena su inpangulis dan daw yu kaaha panday su kandan ha pangena. Say Gracio, Samar daw Sanchez mig-iiling ha iyan gahinawa ha ibayang kandan daw ku kin-o pa su lalang ha bagani. Su pangena dan tagtiyarog duun hu mga belad hu kagi pa “creative license”, kagpagampong hu kultura, daw ku ba ba kagpamanday hu nasod.

I highly recommend that you read all of those in order to see where their thoughts are coming from. The statements of Gracio, Samar and Sanchez seem to share the same sentiments. In their views, they or anyone should be free in using the word bagani. Their thoughts seem to be anchored on the shoulders of the so-called creative license, development of culture and/or nation-building.

Na aman ta yanaen su kandan ha ig-agi, na manlag indagahay ko su kapuun hu kanak ha piggalasan. Maayad ha basahen yu una dini Hinggil sa Aking “Mapanlagom na Pagbabawal sa Paggamit ng Salitang Bagani” o Ang Aking Pangayaw Laban sa Kultural na Pagnanakaw at Iba Pang Kasangkapan ng Kolonyalismong Kanluranin na Ipinagpapatuloy ng mga Nakolonya at Nagpakolonyang mga Pilipino. Su sugibak ko kandan ta daw masabitan yu su nanam hu pighalanghalang ko ha lupyag.

With their views in mind, I drafted my own response clearly outlining the origins of the path that I tread. It would be good if you read here Hinggil sa Aking “Mapanlagom na Pagbabawal sa Paggamit ng Salitang Bagani” o Ang Aking Pangayaw Laban sa Kultural na Pagnanakaw at Iba Pang Kasangkapan ng Kolonyalismong Kanluranin na Ipinagpapatuloy ng mga Nakolonya at Nagpakolonyang mga Pilipino (https://www.facebook.com/anijun.mudanudan/posts/10213633977501727?notif_id=1520809156592094&notif_t=feedback_reaction_generic&ref=notif ) my response to them so you will have a taste of my spicy declarations.

Na inu su naikagi dan maipes haena? Hura kod napaliman ki Samar. Si Gracio ba da nanayo hu “pasensya” daw inbatbat ha iyan din diay kamoteya su kagpangulis hu TV. Mabasa yu su inikagi hi Gracio dini. Si Sanchez nakatimo hu kagi din “lessons ”. Na bul-og ta nayanaen, ba a da napalaw hu kagsalap ha amin pa maumis-umis ha pangena aman siran ba su mga tamaing ha nangapuhag su lapidan ko sa kagkalamuda hu ABS-CBN.

So what have they said after my statements? I’ve have heard nothing from Samar. Gracio just wrote Pasensya na sa Angas which details his work as a writer for TV shows. You may read his words here (https://www.facebook.com/jerry.gracio/posts/10216369969860686 ). Sanchez on the other hand has learned some lessons  (https://louiejonasanchez.com/2018/03/16/lessons-from-a-fantaserye-controversy/ ).  So it came to pass that I felt disillusioned because I was expecting that they have more sweet thoughts on this matter given that they were like honey bees scattered by smoke when I expressed my strong objections to ABS-CBN’s unwarranted use of bagani.      

Ba hura kapangkusi duun hu hura dan kagsugibak su lalanganen hu bagani. Ta isan duun hu mga kagi dan pa IP, na kena mig-iiling su kanay ha tagtiyarogan hu kagsulsog hu bagani. Say Adamat, Barrera daw Bayawan, taglapid daan hu kaggamit hu ABS-CBN hu lalang ha bagani. Ba su kagtambag hi Adamat na duun tagkapuun hu kandin ha kag-aha ha kinahanglan kagi din “historically-accurate daw culturally-correct” su kaggamit hu lalang ha bagani. Duun hu ki Bayawan, panamantaman din inikagi ku inu su kinahanglan daw human kaumaw ha bagani su sabuwa ha etaw. Duun hu ki Barrera, iyan din agkaaha su kagi din pa “devoid of historical and cultural context”. Aman maaha ta ha iling ki Adamat, iyan dan nangen ha historically-accurate daw culturally-correct su kaggamit hu bagani. Duun daan taghitindeg su inikagi hu NCIP hu historical daw cultural significance kagi pa.

But the issue on this matter did no stop in their silence. Because even among us, the so-called IPs, we also have different views and stand on this matter. At first Adamat, Barrera and Bayawan also oppose ABS-CBN’s use of the word bagani. However, Adamat’s opposition stems from his own view that the word bagani should be used in a “historically-accurate and culturally-correct” way. In Bayawan’s statement, he has meticulously described what a bagani is and how to become one according to the Manobo tradition. Barrera on the other hand sees that ABS-CBN’s use of bagani is “devoid of historical and cultural context”. So here it is apparent that like Adamat, they wanted that ABS-CBN should use bagani in some historically-accurate and culturally-correct use. This is also where NCIP’s statement seems to be coming from which emphasized historical and cultural significance (https://www.facebook.com/NCIPportal/photos/a.2073888702837501.1073741828.2008698719356500/2358158404410528/?type=3&theater ).

Duun hu kandan ha pangena, iyan agkatendek su sayep ha kaggamit, “misuse” kagi hu Maninglis. Ba duun hu kanak, kena ba da sayep ba iyan un sa kaggamit duun iyan un gayed sayep. Ta iyan da mabaloy makagamit duun su likat hu tagbabagani daw isan iman tagbatasan hu kagbagani.  Maayad ha hari yu haini agligpai ta diya ta unahan taini na maaha yu ku imba migsuwaya su pigsulsog day ha langgay su maalubang day su ABS-CBN.

In the views expressed above, what they are after is clearly on the “misuse” of the word. But for me, it is not primarily about the misuse but the use itself. Because for the Higaonons, only those who are descendants of those who practice the bagani tradition and still follows it can use it in a warranted manner. This point should be noted because later on, it will be necessary for one to see the point of departure between me and the others during the dialogue with ABS-CBN.      

Na aman ta nakauma aga ta pila ha gatus su nakagbalubasa hu mga inkulis ku taini ha lalanganen na pigdakit A hu sabuwa ko ha duma ta FB. Amin kaglalang hu mga lider hu kagi pa IP ha duma ki Cong. Catamco daw CHED Commissioner Adamat taen Marso 9, 2018 ta Quezon City. Hura a makauma ba impauwit ku su kanak ha “position paper” daw matun-an dan su kanak ha tagtiyarogan. Amin daan kaglalang duma su ABS-CBN. Na aman ta agkabaya a ha maunda un su kagkalamuda hu ABS-CBN, na duminiya a labi. Sabado haena, Marso 10, 2018. Diya kay mig-aha ta Sulo Hotel ta Quezon City.

Maybe because my statement was shared at least a hundred times in social media and was read by hundreds more, I was invited by an FB friend who also happens to be an IP. I was invited to attend two meetings. A meeting was scheduled among “IP leaders” along with Cong. Catamco and CHED commissioner Adamat on March 9, 2018 in Quezon City. I was not able to attend but I sent my position paper so they will know my stand. Another meeting was scheduled and this time with ABS-CBN. Since I wanted very much to put an end to ABS-CBN’s folly in using the word bagani, I decided to attend. It was Saturday, Mar. 10, 2018. The meeting was held at Sulo Hotel in Quezon City.

Su makauma Ad, daw ko pa namelegan ha iinsa ku sin-o su migpatana taena ha kaglalang. Ta hura man nakaugsak diya ha kaglalang day daw hu ABS-CBN. Ba amin diya nakaugsak ha CHED event. Aman su makauma un su duma, su migdiya kay un lawang lalanganan, na duun kay labi tuminago ta pintu ha iyan nakaugsak su CHED event. Iyan ko dayon nahena ha iyan si CHED Commissioner Adamat su migpatana taena ha kaglalang. Abi ko man ha iyan su ABS-CBN su minubay daw nanayo hu kaglalang.

When I arrived, it was then that I wondered who arranged and facilitated the meeting or a supposed to be dialogue. There was no scheduled meeting between ABS-CBN and IPs. But a CHED event was scheduled. When the others had arrived, we proceeded to the venue. We entered the room which was reserved for a CHED event. So I then assumed that it could be CHED commissioner Adamat who arranged that meeting. With that, my impression that it was ABS-CBN who asked and arranged for a meeting was dispelled.

Na di ka pa, su mig-iikagi kay un, iyan ko pa man naaha ha su impauwit hu ABS-CBN ha mga etaw na ba da dumiya ta daw mapaliman kay daw ikagiya daan ku nainuinu dan kadiyalohi su lalang ha bagani. Iyan dan inpanghambog kanay ha madakel kon tamana su “research” dan taena. Ha kena sayep su kaggamit dan hu bagani. Ha hura dan tuyo ha malakaran su kanay ha kultura. Ha su kaggamit dan duun na makagnau hu mga etaw daw duma pa maayad agpalimanan. Mig-ikagi daan si Mark Angos, su kagi pa headwriter dan, ku imba dan katulen su lalang ha bagani. Kagi din pa, migresearch gayed siran. Daw in-isab din ha madakel un kon su taggamit hu lalang ha bagani. Iyan din igtendek ha hari kay makaikagi iyan kay da amin taena ha lalang. In-ila din ha pananglit su libro hu Ilokano ha si Reynado Duque daw su libro hi Edgar Calabia Samar ha Janus Silang. Kagi din pa duun hu duma ha diksyunaryo na amin daan duun inkulis bagani. Kagi din pa madakel ha linguist so consultant dan.

So then, while we were talking there, I understood that the representatives of ABS-CBN were there just to listen and to explain how come they have used the word bagani. They have bragged that massive research was done. That they have committed no wrong in using it as a title of their show. That they have no intention of desecrating the culture of the indigenous people. That their purpose is to educate the people and to do other related lofty goals. Mark Angos, ABS-CBN’s headwriter, also related how they found out about the word bagani. He said that they undertook massive research. He also added that there are already others who have used the word bagani. This is to emphasize that the indigenous people like us then have no exclusive claim to the word. To give examples, he cited the book of Ilocano writer Reynaldo Duque and also Edgar Calabia Samar’s Janus Silang. He also said that other dictionaries also have bagani in its entries. He said they have linguists as consultants. It was obviously to give credibility to their use of the word.      

Na mapenga haena su kagsaylowa hu kag-iikagi day, na nakignat A pa man. Ta napaliman ko man su mga duma ko ngaay ha say Cong. Catamco, CHED Com. Adamat, Atty. Arbie Llesis, Limpayen Sibug Las, Melissa Claire Barrera, Ferdausi Saniel Cerna, Bayang Barrios daw Melchor Umpan Bayawan na agsugot un diay ha hibayaon pa hu ABS-CBN su kaggamit hu bagani alang hu kalingawan dan. Ba da ta amin dan mga kagi pa “conditionalities”. Na di ka pa ba su tigkan mighapoy su kanak ha talinga. Ta su kanak, iyan ko iglugsad ha undaan gayed hu ABS-CBN su kagkalamud dan hu kaggamit hu lalang ha bagani.

So after exchanging statements and views, it was my turn to be surprised. Because it was then that I heard my supposed to be allies like Cong. Catamco, CHED Com. Adamat, Atty. Arbie Llesis, Limpayen Sibug Las, Melissa Claire Barrera, Ferdausi Saniel Cerna, Bayang Barrios and Melchor Umpan Bayawan, that they will agree to ABS-CBN’s continued use of the word bagani in its teleserye as long as certain conditionalities are met. My ears suddenly went aflame on hearing that. Because for me, ABS-CBN should immediately cease and desist in its unwarranted use of the word bagani.

(Amin man diay daruwa ha commissioner hu NCIP ha tagpaliliman taena ha kaglalang daw tag-ila daan siran hu kandan ha pangena ku kinahanglan).

(By the way, two NCIP commissioners were present during the meeting as observers. They also contributed their thoughts, especially regarding rules/procedures, when needed.) 

Na su ikagiyen ko ha hari haena mabaloy, ha iyan ko nangen ha undaan hu ABS-CBN su kaggamit dan hu lalang ha bagani, ha iyan ko nangen ha manayo hu pasaylo su ABS-CBN hu kaglakari dan hu kanay ha kultura, na di ka pa ba su nangakaaslay ha kamais su mga duma ko daw su mga etaw hu ABS-CBN. Na bul-og ta nayanaen, na migsuwaya una su daruwa ha grupo ta daw makaglalang kay pa man su migduduma ngaay. Su naiyan-iyan kay un, na iyan kay pa man miglalang. Duun taena na iyan A da sabubuwa ha hari gayed agkabaya ha matag-uma pa malakaran hu ABS-CBN su lalang ha bagani. Na iyan pa man igduslit kanak hu mga duma ko su kagi dan pa “consensus”.  Na su malugay un, napuraan ad un daan ta su mga duma ko na agkayagting un man ha iila hu ABS-CBN su “conditionalities” ha tagpanayoon dan,  na migpapagayok Ad. Ba iyan ko pa man tagpanayoon ha abinon hu ABS-CBN su sala din daw manayo hu pasaylo ta mga banuwa hu Higaonon daw duma ha amin batasan hu kagbagani. Ba isan haena na tamana pigtambagan hi CHED Com. Adamat daw Cong. Catamco. Kagi dan pa, hura kon sala hu ABS-CBN. Hari day kon mapuges su ABS-CBN ha manayo pasaylo sumala hu kagbatasan ta kena kon siran iling kanay ha tagbatasan. Na iyan ko pa man nahena ha hari una mag-ila kanak hu desisyon ta agpanginsa a pa hu mga laas ko ta kanay ha mag banuwa. Ba hari daan siran agsugot ta malugayadan pa kon haena. Agkabaya un gayed siran ha taena ha aldaw na makaila kay un hu sabuwa ha desisyon. Es na, lamig ta hibaya ad un kandan agpagayokan, su duma na agkaaha ko ha panday ad kandan agkapaukan. Na aman ta nayanaen, na sige. Ba kagi ko, igpauma ko haini ta mga laas ko.

So when I expressed that what they wanted is not acceptable to me, that it is my wish for ABS-CBN to stop using the word bagani, that it is my hope that ABS-CBN issue an apology in desecrating our culture, it was then that all of them were like spilled kernels of corn. With that, the two groups (ABS-CBN reps and us) separated in order for us to sort the issue among ourselves. After the ABS-CBN group left, we discussed our situation. There I clearly saw that it was only me who does not consent to ABS-CBN’s continued desecration of the word bagani. My supposed allies pointedly reminded me that we should have a consensus. After a lengthy talk, I felt tired especially because my supposed allies are clearly excited to the prospect that ABS-CBN will grant the conditionalities they wanted to have, so I relented. But I suggested that ABS-CBN should at least recognize its mistake and issue an apology.  But even that suggestion was strongly rebuffed by CHED Com. Adamat and Cong. Catamco. They said that ABS-CBN committed no mistake. And that ABS-CBN cannot be compelled to issue an apology especially because it is not bound to our traditions as indigenous people. So I said that I would be postponing my decision then because I needed to consult the elders in my community. But it was again met with disapproval as it will take a long time. All of them wanted to make a unified decision that very day. Some cajoled and entreated me while others are obviously incensed. So I again relented. But I stressed that I will report what has transpired to my elders.        

Na hura ko man nangen ha manayo hu “conditionalities” na ba kod siran pigbayangi ku inu su mga agkabayaan dan agpanayoon. Ba a nanginsa ta NCIP commissioners ku amin ba iling un taini ha kaso. Kagi dan hura pa. Daw nanginsa A pa hu duma ha nahena ko mahitunged hu IPRA.

Since I am not interested to impose conditionalities, I just let them discuss whatever conditionality they wanted to have. I then spent my time asking the NCIP commissioners if there is already a precedent to this case. They said there was none. I also asked some pertinent questions regarding IPRA.

Su makaliko un su grupo hu ABS-CBN, nangalipay un siran ta inikagi un hi CHED Com. Adamat ha agsugot un siran ku matuman su mga “conditionalities”. Iyan sugibak hu ABS-CBN ha ikagiyon dan haena ta mga agalen dan. Daw maglalang isab hu Marso 13, 2018.

When the ABS-CBN group went back, they were obviously elated because CHED commissioner Adamat already stated that the group will agree as long as the conditionalities are granted. The ABS-CBN group responded that they will relay it to their bosses. Another meeting was then scheduled for Mar. 13, 2018.

Na mapenga haena, minuli Ad ta naaha ko ha naiyan-iyan A da diya hu kanak ha tagtiyarogan ta su mga duma ko ngaay na iyan dan naaha su kagi dan pa “win-win solution”.  Kagi pa, iyan ta da pangawasan su mga deldeg ha makadaug ki.

After that, I went home immediately seeing that I was alone in my stand as my supposed allies are after what they call a “win-win solution”.  They said that we should only fight battles we can win.

Na aman ta nayanaen, naaha ko ha iyan igkalapidi hu kanak ha kag-aha ta iyan un man su mga duma ko ngaay hari un agtiyarog duun hu kag-aha ha amin sala hu ABS-CBN. Naaha ko daan ha dali da siran agkalimungawi hu mga kagi pa “research” ha pighimo hu mga manguliskulis hu ABS-CBN. Su ikagiyon hi Angos ha madakel un su taggamit hu bagani, ha amin un libro hi anhing Duque daw hi Samar ha miggamit hu bagani, na nahena dan un ha hari kay un makaikagi ha iyan kay da amin bagani.

From that event, I saw that my view was overruled because my supposed allies no longer stand on the view that ABS-CBN committed a grievous mistake. I also realized that they were easily duped by the so-called research done by ABS-CBN’s writers. When Angos said that there are already many others who use the word bagani, that the late Duque and also Samar had already used it in their respective books, my supposed allies had already believed the notion that we can no longer claim exclusivity to the word bagani.

Maayad ha matun-an hu alan ha su pig-ikagi hi Angos na hari makasakat. Ta su igwagawaga din ha libro hi Samar, na hura din katun-i  ku imba kasulat hi Samar. Maayad matun-an hu alan ha aman nahaushaus si Samar hu kaggamit hu bagani ta nabayaan din su kanak ha inkulis ha libro – su Batbat Hi Udan. Ba su ikagiyan ko si Angos taena, na hanaw ko natendek din su igpatana taen. Na pig-sil-ip ku daan su mahitunged hu libro hi anhing Duque ha Bagani Ubbog. Na iyan ko naaha ha ngaran haena hu banuwa ta Ilocos. Man ta amin tag-ikagi ha iling hu bagani day su igpatana taen, na balawbalaw ko pinan-aha duun hu English-Ilocano dictionary. Na hura duun lalang ha bagani.  Aman ku untol haena ha lalang hu Ilocano na amin ngaay maaha duun hu dictionary dan ta su agkailing taena ha mga lalang na hari dali agkalipatan hu tuminduk ha aggamit duun. Su iyan ko ahaa su Maninglis ha warrior, iyan pa man duun in-ila ha kaghukad ta Ilocano su mannakigubat daw su Kinatsila ha soldado.

It should be noted that the claims of Angos does not hold water. First, Angos didn’t know the circumstance on why Samar used the word bagani in his book. It should be stressed that Samar appropriated the word bagani after reading my novel – Batbat hi Udan. I told Angos about it but I don’t know if he understands what that means to his claims. I also took a peek on some information about Duque’s Bagani Ubbog. Apparently, it was a name of a town in Ilocos. Considering that there are those who claim that Duque’s use is consistent with the meaning that IP’s ascribe to the word bagani, I looked it up in an English-Ilocano dictionary. I wondered because there was no entry for bagani. But if it is an organic part of the Ilocano lexicon it should appear in their dictionary as words associated with important concepts like bagani cannot just easily disappear from usage. So I looked for the word warrior to find it in reverse but the dictionary gives the translation mannakigubat and the Spanish term soldado.

Aman iyan pa man panginginsa ku imba amin mga ngaran ha bagani ta Ilocos. Imba gaid? Amin dan gid bagani su anay anay pa? Ba ku amin dan, imba kalaag duun hu kandan ha kag-ikagi?

So now we have to ask why is it that there are names in Ilocos that have the bagani? Why? Did they have bagani in the old times? But if they had, why did it disappear in the lexicon of their language?

Amin ko sabuwa kagi pa ha “conjecture” ku imba amin ngaran, untol ha tugam-a ha Bagani ta Ilocos. Duun haini pakahitindeg hu sabuwa ha hitabo ha natun-an ko. Ta su anay ha bag-o A pa nakatuen mag-internet, amin ko naaha ha batbat hu Filipino-American War ha inkulis hi Arnaldo Dumindin. Na nabeleng A napanday ta su etaw ha pigtugam-ahan ha “Dumindin” na suled hayana hu mga buuy ko diya ta Dalawangan ta Bukidnon. Na aman pigsulatan ko haena ha etaw. Nanginsa A ku tagahindu daw ku tagahindu su mga masieden din. Ku amin din ba masieden ta Mindanaw. Na iyan din ikagi ha taga-Pangasinan siran. Ba kagi din pa, iyan da siran Dumindin ta Pangasinan. Na isab din, amin din hena ha su buuy din na napuun gayed ta Mindanaw. Kangku kagi din, bagani daw ku ba ba datu ha inlambeg (exiled)  hu mga Katsila su anay. Ta labi kagi din da, hura din lain agkatulen ha mga Dumindin ba su diya ta kanay ta Mindanaw.

Well, I have one conjecture as to why there are names, obviously proper nouns that use Bagani in Ilocos. This conjecture stands on an experience that I have some years back. When I first learned the use of internet, I have come across a narrative about the Filipino-American War written by Arnaldo Dumindin. It gave me a big surprise as the man who was named Dumindin is a brother of one of my ancestors in Dalwangan of Malaybalay, Bukidnon.  I immediately contacted the author through email. I asked where his hometown is and where his relatives live. I also asked if he happens to know some relatives in Mindanaw. He replied that he is from Pangasinan but he knew of no other Dumindins there. He added that it is possible that his ancestor is from Mindanaw. He said that ancestor could be some warrior or datu who may have been exiled by the Spanish. He said that he thought that way because he could trace no other Dumindins but those who are in Mindanaw.

Na duun taena ha imbatbat ko, maaha ta ha aragi tungkay su posibilidad ha amin bagani su anay ha inlambeg su anay hu mga Katsila diya ta Ilocos. Na iyan gid nahena taena ha etaw ha itugam-a din su lalang ha bagani daw hari malipatan ku hindu kandin napuun. Ta isan ku hindu sulisuliha, na mga untol ha tugam-a su kaggamit hu lalang ha bagani diya ta Ilocos. Na imba gid sugot su mga Ilocano ha ngaranan ha bagani su duma dan ha banuwa? Aw, ku amin nakadiya ha bagani, na mabayaan gayed isan hu mga Ilocano. Ta su anay kagi pa, su mga etaw na iyan dan aghangaren su mga etaw maayad su pangena, mabibis-ay, tagbulig hu duma daw mababalaw.  Na alan haena na maaha nu man duun ku bagani. “Conjecture” da haini su kanak ba ku benal su batbat hi Dumindin, na ubay da ha amin makauma ha bagani ta Ilocos.

From the experience that I have related, we can see that there is a big possibilty that there was someone, a bagani, who could have been exiled by the Spanish to Ilocos. He could have thought to have himself named Bagani to remember where he came from. Because no matter how we see it, the use of bagani in Ilocos was exclusively used as proper nouns. But why did Ilocanos before consent to name their places as Bagani? Well, if a bagani had really lived there, I am sure Ilocanos will like him. We know that in the old times, people look up to individuals imbued with wisdom, strength, kindness to others and bravery – traits that a bagani easily has. This is just a conjecture but if Dumindin’s hunch is true, then it is not farfetched that a bagani (or maybe baganis) have reached Ilocos at some point in time when the Spaniards still blighted this archipelago.          

Duun hu tag-ikagiyon hu iling hi Sanchez ha amin bagani daw baganihan ta dictionary hu mga taga-Panay, na iyan da matendek ta duun ha ku laus haena, daw ku tagbatasan siran hu bagani isan iman, na iling kanay amin dan katunged ha lapidan su kagkalamud hu ABS-CBN.

In what others like Sanchez say regarding the presence of the terms bagani and baganihan in the dictionary of Panay, the thing that we can be sure of is that, if the indigenous people in Panay continue to have a bagani tradition, then like us they have the right to oppose ABS-CBN’s unwarranted use of the word bagani.

Na batbaten ta pa man su makauli A puun hu kaglalang diya ta Sulo Hotel. Nangumaw a diya ta mga laas ko. Na nangapauk gayed siran su matun-an dan ku inu su nahitabo. Aman hura Ad dumiya ta kaglalang hu Marso 13, 2018. Pigsulatan kod su mga duma ko diya ta kaglalang ku inu su posisyon ko. Ha hari ad agpanginlabet ku inu su masabotan dan ta ABS-CBN. Na nabasa kod un lang ha pigbalita un ha amin un kon kagi pa “common ground” ha nauma hu ABS-CBN daw hi CHED Com. Adamat, Cong. Catamco daw mga IP Leaders duun hu kaggamit hu bagani. Sin-o gaid haena su mga IP leaders ha tag-ilingen dan? A, iyan da anuba haena su mga duma ko ngaay diya ta kaglalang. Hura day duun labet ta hari kay duun agsugot. Aman amin mga datu ha miglugsad hu kandan ha reklamo diya ta NCIP Bukidnon ha hangtod iman na hura pa anuba makayog hu NCIP. Duun taena na indagahay hi “Datu Jasaan” Jessie Jantay duma hu pitu ha mga laas ha mga datu daw bae ha:

… ginamit dan hu pamamahandi su balaan ha tagbaya hu mga alimaong.

Doon hu kanit ha kagbatasan hadi ta igpamahandi sa kultura, ta kena ki man negosyante. Ke gamiton t aman ugaling hayan. Kinahanglan ha maten-an hu kadakelan ta para ha makagsingampo key para hari key masaid hu batasan.

Tungod taina ipaunda day su pagamit (hu ABS-CBN) gawas ku alan ha Higaonon sumugot ipaagi dan una hu free prior inform consent (FPIC) dine ta banuwa taw. (kanak su impaitem)

Now I well relate what happened after the meeting at Sulo Hotel. I endeavoured to contact the elders in the Higaonon community where I belong. They were all incensed when I reported what had transpired. With that, I no longer attended the March 13, 2018. I also wrote to the other “IP leaders” who were there at the first meeting to relay my final position. I said that I have nothing to do anymore with whatever arrangement they will have with ABS-CBN. After that, I have read from the news that there is already a so-called “common ground” reached between ABS-CBN and CHED Com. Adamat, Cong. Catamco and “IP Leaders” in the use of bagani. Who are those IP leaders? Well, surely they were the ones who were there with me during the first meeting with ABS-CBN. But as for us, we have nothing to do with it because we object to ABS-CBN’s use of the word bagani. Incidentally, there are already datus who filed a complaint at NCIP Bukidnon which until now remains to be acted upon by those concerned. In the declarations of “Datu Jasaan” Jessie Jantay along with seven other elders, six datus and a bae:

 (…they used it in business, the sacred tagbaya of the alimaong.

In our customary laws, we do not use our culture in business, because we are not businessmen. If ever we use it (like how ABS-CBN used it), the community must know and proper rituals should be done to avoid any harm from the spirit guardians of our customary laws.

Because of this, we demand that ABS-CBN cease and desist in using it unless all Higaonons agree through the conduct of FPIC here in our communities.)  (translation and context supplied)

Na maaha duun hu sulat hi Jantay daw hu mga duma din ha agtambagan dan su kaggamit hu ABS-CBN hu lalang ha bagani. Na duun hu indagahay dan, maaha ta daan ku imba, su mga iling kanay na aglapid gayed hu kagkalamud hu ABS-CBN ta su bagani “balaan ha tagbaya hu mga alimaong”, ta ku agkalakaran haena na “masaid hu batasan” su tagpasipala.

From the complaint letter of Jantay et al, it is plain to see that they oppose ABS-CBN’s use of the word bagani. Their letter also provide context as to why people like us object to ABS-CBN’s foolish use of the word bagani because the “bagani” is the “sacred ha tagbaya of the alimaong”, and when desecrated “harm from guardian spirits” will fall on the violators.

Inu su igpatana taini? Na mag-aneng-aneng su amin din amet ta daw hari malagkes hu tungayaw ha agkabukalkalan hu ngaran hu tagbaya ha intunda duun hu kagsawala.

What does the above narrative implies? Well, those who have sound minds should be careful so they will not partake of the curses that are unleashed in repeatedly summoning the name of the tagbaya of war without the proper rituals.  

Duun hu batbat hu kapuun hu etaw, na hibaya agkabatbat ha iyan kandin mig-ila hu lalang su mga tumanud daw mga tagbaya. Aman su mga tuminduk hu etaw ha tagbatasan pa duun hu kagbatasan hu kandan ha mga laas, na agkabantula su gahinawa ku su kandan ha inlalaw ha mga lalang na agkalakaran hu duma ha etaw. Iyan bagad ha agkapauk su etaw ku su kandin ha mga tagpan-adapan ha mga tagpanumanud kandin daw hu kandin ha gepa daw piglamahan na maal un agpanampita hu duma alang hu kalamud ha mga buhat dan.

It should be noted that in the history of man’s origins, it is always narrated that the gods are the ones who gave him words and language. That is why, those who still follow the traditions of their forefathers usually get angry when the words that they consider sacred is desecrated by other people. It is but normal for people to be angered when the sacred names of their gods are being used by others in a desecratory manner.

Duun taini ha kaghelayhelay, maaha ta ngaay ku imba ba su lunay ha tigkan nangabukad hu hapoy su kapauk hu Higaonon su malagsikan hu tingkik ha tagngaranan day ha “kagmaalmaal hu ABS-CBN hu kaggamit hu inlalaw ha lalang ha bagani para ha makasalapi”. Ta maipes maikagi hu ABS-CBN daw hu manguliskulis dan ku nainuinu dan kadiyalohi su lalang ha bagani, na sabuwa da su naaha duun hu Higaonon, iyan dan gayed lagud ha makasalapi isan ku malakaran su kanay ha piglamahan hu kagbatasan. Aman iman, ag-isab-isaben ko agbukalkali, agpandayaen ko ag-ikagiya su alan ha nakatana, agpakatana, daw isan su hura pa. Ta su ABS-CBN daw su mga sakop din, na hura pa makasabot, ha su tungayaw hu tumutugpong hu kanay ha kagbatasan, na hari mailing kanay ha ba da makagbaldeng ha iling taini. Ba ha ku iyan mag-ikagi su tumutugpong, na agkasaid su kabukalagan hu amin sala, agkalimas isan su alan ha masieden hu agkasala. Aman mag-aneng-aneng su amin din amet.

With what has already been related, it should be easy to see why the Higaonon’s anger, like a lunay, an almaciga resin, immediately flowered with fire when a spark we call “ABS-CBN’s desecration of the word bagani in order to maike money” happened. Because after ABS-CBN and its writers had said how they came to use the word bagani, one thing became clear for the Higaonon, their purpose is to profit even if it means desecrating the Higaonon’s dignity and culture. So again I will reveal, I will properly state, the things that were, that are and those that may come to pass. Because ABS-CBN and its minions still fail to understand, that the curses of the guardians of our customary laws are not like us who can only warn through words. Because when the avenging guardians speak, their words obliterate even the descendants of the tresspasser and harm even the relatives of the violators. So be careful those who have common sense.

Aglupyagen ko iman, agsubayen ko ku hindi napuun haini su inlalaw ha lalang, su lalang ha intunda, su gimokod ha igpaulin-ulin duun hu lama hu kagsawala duun hu deldegan hu bulunay.  Ta gaon su anay, su anay ha iyan pa tagpanagulambong ta Amin Danaw su Walu Talugan ta Talugan ta Tagolowan, su anay ha hura pa imbesag isan su kainayan hu kaamayan hu mga tag-iya iman hu ABS-CBN, na intunda un hu mga buuy day (bulawan su hirugaan dan, lama ko su pulo dan) su tagsaut ha gimokod, su tumanud hu tagpangayaw ha impatana duun hu inlalaw ha lalang ha bagani. Aman puun taen, pignau hu kanay ha mga tumanud su mga buuy day duun ku benal daw untol ha kagbatasan daw hari kay makasala kandin ha iyan tagbulig kanay ku amin manangkay daw ku iyan kay agpangawasan ta benlas. Na aman ta nalugay lugay un man haena, na duun hu katag-uma kag-alundaya hu Higaonon daw ku inlalaw ha bagani, na iyan un intugam-a hu mababalaw ha alimaong day su babaganien, na sungu na iyan un intugam-a hu tagbatasan hu kagbagani su bagani. Ba man haena agkabaloy ta su tagbatasan na nakatuen ku inu su mga talanden taen, ku inu su mga lugbak taen, ku inu su kagbatasan hu iling taen. Ba da pigdalini hu tugam-a su etaw ba su laus ha bagani na kena etaw ba iyan haena su tag-adapan din, su taglugbakan din, su tag-umawen din labi un ku tag-uma su panahon ha agpangawasan ta benlas, ku agpandeldeg ta bulunay.

Now I will state, now I will tell where this sacred word came from. It was granted to us by our god of war, it is a fearsome spirit who rules over the fields of war. It was during the ancient times, when the Walu Talugan at the Talugan of Tagolowan rules our island, when even the matriarch of the patriarchs of the owners of ABS-CBN are not yet born, the god of war has given our ancestors (bulawan su hirugaan dan, lama ko su pulo dan) the spirit of the war dance, the deity of those who wage war who was tamed, who was named by the sacred word bagani. From then on, the guardian spirits have taught our ancestors the proper and the right way of honoring the tagbaya who helps them when they are attacked or when they wage war. And because it was so long ago, in the long time that the Higaonons have interacted with the sacred bagani, the courageous warriors were called babaganien. And so it came to pass that those who became adept in the traditions of the bagani were finally called bagani. But it was only made possible because they have mastered the bagani’s rituals, they have known the necessary offerings, and they have been taught the mysteries of its traditions. The men who practice it are only called bagani because of their asscociation with it because the true bagani is the one to whom they pay homage, the one they invoke in a special altar, the one they call especially when they go to war, when they wage their battles.

Aman duun taena, hari gayed makatana, hari gayed mauntol su kagmaalmaal hu ABS-CBN daw hu mga tagpanguliskulis dan hu lalang ha bagani. Na su iling taena ha buhat, na agkalakaran su bangkasu hu bagani ha tagbaya. Na bul-og ku agkalakaran su kandin ha piglamahan, na agpanayo hu lugbak. Hiay! Mga kalamud ha etaw! Hura dan kasabot ha su gimokod ha tag-olin hug agtalabusawen, su tagbaya ha intunda ha pig-tugam-ahan ha bagani na babayaen su pusung daw atay hu mga tagpasipala hu kandin ha piglamahan!

From the context given above, ABS-CBN and its writers’ use of the word bagani can never be justified. Clearly, what they did is a desecration to the altar of a tagbaya. They should know that this kind of tagbaya demands proper offerings when his altar is desecrated. Hiay! What fools! They do not know that they have dishonored the tagbaya that controls even the fearsome talabusaw. That they have debased the ever angry spirit who consumes the hearts and the liver of those who call him without proper offerings in his altar.

Na human kaw iman, ta hari yu man ag-undaan su kagkalamud ha kaggamit hu lalang ha bagani, na hari kay un ingyo mabasol asem. Hibaya day ig-ikagi ha hari mabaloy hayan ku agkalakaran su kandin ha bangkasu, ku hari agkaadapan, ku hari agkalugbakan hu kandin babayaen, ku hari agkasunod su kandin ha inlalaw.

Well, we have been warning you to stop your unwarranted use of the word bagani, so you have yourselves to blame. We have repeatedly said that what you did is not right. You not only desecrated its bangkasu, but you also did not even bother to recognize it by offering what is due and performing the proper rituals.

Imba yu hibaya ag-umawa su ngaran din ha hari yug lugbakan? Imba yu hibaya igbandilyo su ngaran din ha hura yu kaadapi? Imba yu tag-uma ag-umawa su tagbaya hu mga alimaong day daw hibaya aglakari sikay ha iyan pigtundaan ku inu su kagbatasan hu kagbagani?

Why are you always calling its name without the proper offerings? Why are you broadcasting its name without doing the proper rituals? Why are you calling the name of the tagbaya of our alimaongs while disrespecting us who were the ones granted the knowledge in the traditions of the bagani?  

Hura yu katun-i ku inu su untol ha bagani. Hura yu kaaha ku inu su untol ha weleng hu bagani. Hura yu kasagkaw ku inu su untol ha igpatana hu lalang ha bagani.

Obviously, you are ignorant of what a bagani is. You do not know the real face of the bagani. You do not know what the word bagani really means.

Su tiyay ku ha baylan, hari din ngani agsubayen isan su ngaran hay Buuy Agyu. Isan su tiyay ku ha baylan ha nakatendek ku inu su untol ha weleng hu bagani, hari ngani ag-iikagi hu kagbagani. Ta inlalaw haena. Ta daw da haena ag-umawa ku agpangawasan ta benlas daw agpandeldeg ta bulunay.

My aunt is a baylan, but she would not even say the name of the great bagani Buuy Agyu. My aunt is a baylan who knows the real face of the bagani but she would not even dare mention about the traditions of the bagani. Because it is forbidden to say it needlessly. Because it is only invoked when one goes to war, when one wages battles.

A, hura yu taga mga amet duun hu kanay ha piglamahan. Aman iman, ta hibayaon yu man ag-umawen su kena ingyo ha umawen, na dagahayen ko, lupyagen ko ku inu su tungayaw ha saleping hu bagani. Hari yud un asem maikagi ha hura day ingyo ikagiyi ta agluyahan Ad hu katag-uma kag-ikagi ha igbando su kaggamit hu lalang bagani hu hari tagbatasan hu kagbagani.

Clearly, you are ignorant to our culture. Now, since you have started calling the name which you should avoid calling, it is necessary for me to let you know that there are dreadful curses that it invites. So you may no longer say to us that we did not warn you. I am growing tired of repeatedly saying that the word bagani cannot be used by those who do no follow the traditions of the bagani.

Ahaa yu iman su weleng hu bagani ha hibaya yu ag-umawa kasi anlaw.

Now, see the bagani’s face in its kindest image.

Maliga tungkay su mata din ha taghapoy. Su mga sulo din ba su linumbu. Su hapoy hi Kayamat intunda kandin ta agbigsulan din su mga banuwa. Babayaen din su pusung daw atay hu etaw. Babayaen din su langesa hu etaw aman tagligaliga hu langesa su kandin ha igdalan.    Iyan balinsuguon hu Diwata hu Aluyan.  Dayon din agsaida su tagpanlakadlakad hu kandin piggakeran. Bul-og ku agkapauk aglimasen din su aglakad hu piglamahan din. Agtugpongen din su tagpasipala hu bangkasu din. Agkababaan hu untong su maal un tag-umaw kandin. Iyan din da agkabayaan su kagsawala. Duun kandin agkabayabaya ku katag-uma su mga pangayaw. Tagpanghimatay hu etaw ta agkabaya kandin agpanghimatay.

His eyes are blazing red/His nails are lethal spears/Kayamat’s fire is his/To lay waste to cities. He delights in hearts and livers/His path a trail of blood/The lady of death commands him/To destroy even races.His anger wipes out generations/His happiness is in the fields of war/He is an angel of death/He kills and kills because it is the way he is. 

Iyan haini hibaya yu agbukalkali hu kag-umawa yu hu bagani. Agbukaylahen yu su dayagang hu kamandag.  Aman hari kay ingyo mabasol asem ku amin yu maul-ulahan. Ta iyan kaw hibaya tagbadbad hu tungayaw ha saleping hu lalang ha bagani ha pigbakes un hu mga lugbak daw panendan hu madakel un ha kabukalagan hu mga buuy day. Hala, hibayaa yu pa umawa!  Hibayaa yu pa badbari su saleping din ha tungayaw!

This is the power that you want to be unleashed in calling the bagani. You are letting loose all the evils that its power can bring because you did not undertake the necessary rituals. You have yourselves to blame then for trying to set free all the curses that generations of our ancestors have bound through countless rituals and sacrifices. Now, continue calling his name! Invite all its curses! 

 

References

Adamat, R. (2018). Letter to Mr. Karlo Katigbak. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=2394623190563922&set=pcb.2394623277230580&type=3&theater

Barrera, M.C. (2018). AN OPEN LETTER TO ABS-CBN AND THE PRODUCTION TEAM OF BAGANI. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/search/str/melissa+claire/keywords_blended_postsfilters_rp_author=%7B%22name%22%3A%22author_friends_feed%22%2C%22args%22%3A%22%22%7D

Bayawan, M.U. (2018). TO MARK ANGOS, THE WRITER OF THE ABS-CBN, BAGANI TELESERYE TO BE LAUNCHED ON MARCH 4, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/melchor.bayawan/posts/1833006296743747

Gracio, J. (2018). Muni sa bagani. Retrieved from https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=10216344727709648&id=1198322242

__________(2018). Pasensya na sa angas. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/jerry.gracio/posts/10216369969860686

Jantay, J.B. (2018). Letter of complaint addressed to provincial director of NCIP Bukidnon. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10213773536110605&set=pcb.10213773546590867&type=3&theater

NCIP National (2018). NCIP STATEMENT ON THE USE OF “BAGANI” IN THE ABS-CBN DRAMA FANTASY SERIES.  Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/NCIPportal/photos/a.2073888702837501.1073741828.2008698719356500/2358158404410528/?type=3&theater

Samar, E.C. (2018). Series of FB Status. Retrieved from
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Sanchez, L.J.(2018). Ang Bagani, ang liham ni Kom. Adamat, ang pagkiling sa realismo, at ang patuloy na mababang tingin sa kulturang popular. Retrieved from https://m.facebook.com/notes/louie-jon-a-s%C3%A1nchez/ang-bagani-ang-liham-ni-kom-adamat-ang-pagkiling-sa-realismo-at-ang-patuloy-na-m/10155186625141316/

____________(2018). Lessons from a fantaserye. Retrieved from (https://louiejonasanchez.com/2018/03/16/lessons-from-a-fantaserye-controversy/

Sungkit, T.S. (2018). Hinggil sa palabas na bagani ng ABS-CBN . Retrieved from
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_____________(2018). Hinggil sa Aking “Mapanlagom na Pagbabawal sa Paggamit ng Salitang Bagani” o Ang Aking Pangayaw Laban sa Kultural na Pagnanakaw at Iba Pang Kasangkapan ng Kolonyalismong Kanluranin na Ipinagpapatuloy ng mga Nakolonya at Nagpakolonyang mga Pilipino. Retrieved from  https://www.facebook.com/anijun.mudanudan/posts/10213633977501727?notif_id=1520809156592094&notif_t=feedback_reaction_generic&ref=notif

 

 

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